Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves making very small incisions in the abdomen to insert a laparoscope, a thin lighted telescope, and other instruments to carefully inspect your pelvic and abdominal organs. If an abnormality is found, treatment can typically be done through the laparoscope. Common indications for laparoscopy include infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and tubal ligations.